12 Chakula na Upishi kama Sanaa

Richmond Embeywa and Chantelle Warner

WBP Festival ´13, Christian Leitner is marked with CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

Kiwango:

Cha wastani/Cha juu

Maneno makuu:

maelezo ⧫ vivumishi ⧫ chakula ⧫ upishi ⧫ upendeleo & tabia

Summary:

This multi-day lesson explores our relationship with and habits related to food. In particular, the role of food in our lives as aesthetic experiences, which engage our five senses. This creates opportunities for students to reflect on their own preferences and how those are shaped not only by nutritional needs, but through cultural influences and personal predilections. On the first day, students reflect on these more generally. This sets the foundation for the students’ explorations of how art can make our relationships with food and eating visible through the use of different compositional designs. Whether or not students have access to an art gallery for this set of lessons, they can consider how different media convey various dimensions of what food means for us and for others.

Mukhtasari:

Somo hili la siku tatu linazingatia uhusiano kati ya tabia zetu na chakula. Hasa nafasi na uzuri wa chakula maishani mwetu, kwa kuzingatia hisia zote tano. Hii inawapa wanafunzi fursa ya kutafakari mapendeleo yao na pia kuzingatia jinsi mapendeleo haya yanavyoshawishwa sio tu na mahitaji ya lishe, bali pia na ushawishi wa utamaduni na upendeleo wa kibinafsi. Siku ya kwanza wanafunzi wanatatafakari mambo haya kwa ujumla. Hii inawapa msingi wa kuchunguza vile sanaa unaweza fanya uhusiano wetu na chakula na ulaji kuibuka kupitia kwa matumizi ya miundo mbalimbali ya utunzi. Hata kama wanafunzi hawatapata fursa ya kulizuru jumba la sanaa, wanawezazingatia vile ambavyo vyombo tofauti vya habari vinafikisha mielekeo mbalimbali kuhusu jinsi tunavyohusisha maana kwa chakula.

Malengo ya somo:

  • Kuweza kuzungumzia kuhusu tabia pamoja na mapendeleo ya kula
  • Kuweza kutafakari namna ambavyo tabia zetu na mapendeleo ya kula hupata ushawishi wa kiafya na wa kitamaduni.
  • Kuweza kueleza aina ainati za vyakula kwa kina kwa kutumia hisia zote tano.
  • Kuweza, kwa kushirikiana na matumizi haya, soma maandishi rahisi, kuchambua na kuandika, kwa mfano, hakiki ya mgahawa, kurasa za wavuti

SIKU YA KWANZA: Chakula kama Sanaa

This first set of activities is designed to invite students to use language they will typically have learned in a chapter on eating and drinking to begin to reflect on their own habits and preferences and the ways in which those are shaped through culture and society.

Mazoezi ya kwanza yamekusudiwa kuwaalika wanafunzi watumie lugha waliyojifunza katika sura ya kula na kunywa, wakitafakari kuhusu tabia na mapendeleo yao binafsi na vile ambavyo haya yameathiriwa na utamaduni na jamii.

Kuzungumzia Tabia Zetu za Kula

This discussion can be done first as a pair or small group activity in class or as a homework assignment to be brought into class. In online and hybrid classes, it also works well as a discussion board. Important is that these individual responses build in some way towards comparisons and ultimately toward a sense of commonalities and differences within the class. For example, this can be done by gathering answers on a board in the classroom and asking students to create graphic organizers representing the classroom trends.

Mazungumzo haya yanawezakamilishwa na wanafunzi wawili au kwa vikundi vidogo darasani au kupewa kama kazi ya ziada inayoweza kuwasilishwa darasani. Mazungumzo haya pia yanaweza kufanikishwa katika katika madarasa ya mkondoni au ya mseto kupitia bodi ya majadiliano. Ni muhimu majibu haya ya kibinafsi yawe msingi wa kulinganisha na baadaye kuwepo kwa hisia za kawaida na za kutofautisha darasani. Kwa mfano, hii inaweza fanywa kwa kukusanya majibu kwenye ubao na kuwauliza wanafunzi waunde mipango ya picha yanayo wakilisha mienendo ya darasa.

A. Je, wewe hula nini? Je, wewe hunywa nini?

Jadili maswali yafuatayo na mwenzio.

  1. Je, unapenda kula nini? Je, ni nini hupendi kula?
  2. Je, unapenda kunywa nini? Je, ni nini hupendi kunywa?
  3. Je, unapenda kula au kunywa nini wakati wa kiamsha kinywa?
  4. Je, unapenda kula au kunywa nini kama staftahi?
  5. Je, unapenda kula au kunywa nini kama chajio?
  6. Je, unapenda kula au kunywa nini kama kitindamlo?
  7. Je, kuna chakula maalum unachokipenda? Kama kipo, ni kipi?
  8. Je, kuna kinywaji maalum unachokipenda? Kama kipo, ni kipi?
B. Sisi hula nini?

Linganisha majibu yako na yale ya wanafunzi wenzako. Je, yamefanana? Je, kuna vyakula ambavyo ni vya kawaida? Ni vyakula vipi tunavyovipenda zaidi? Linganisheni majibu kwenye jedwali lifuatalo.

Aina ya chakula Majibu
Vyakula vya nyama
Vyakula vya tambi
Vyakula vya mboga
Vyakula vya baharini
Supu / Mchuzi
Pizza
Vyakula vya viazi
Hakuna vyakula vinavyopendwa
C. Je, wao hula nini?

Jifahamishe kuhusu vyakula 20 maarufu zaidi nchini Kenya kwenye tovuti kupitia kupitia kiungo “Vyakula 20 maarufu zaidi nchini Kenya” Je, unagundua jambo gani? Linganisha maelezo kwenye tovuti na yale ya wanafunzi wenzako.

D. Je, watu ulimwenguni hula nini?

These descriptions can be written first as in pairs or small groups in class or as a homework assignment to be brought into class and compared with peers. When sharing their descriptions, students can be pushed to elaborate with adjectives, which also helps to set them up for the museum activities on Day 3.

Maelezo haya yanaweza kuandikwa  kwanza kati ya wanafunzi wawili au katika makundi madogo madogo darasani au kupeanwa kama kazi ya ziada na kisha kuwasilishwa darasani kwa madhumuni ya kulinganisha na kazi za wanafunzi wengine. Wanapojadiliana maelezo yao, wanafunzi wanaweza kuhinizwa kufafanua maelezo yao kwa kutumia vivumishi, vitakavyowasaidia kujitayarisha kwa ajili ya zoezi la siku ya tatu katika makavazi.

Mfululizo wa picha “Hungry Planet” (njaa ulimwenguni) uliowekwa pamoja na mpiga picha kutoka Amerikani Peter Menzel unaonyesha vyakula ambavyo watu ulimwenguni hula. Angalia picha kutoka Amerikani. Eleza picha. Unaona nini? Familia inanunua nini? Kisia, wanainunua wapi vyakula vyao?

N.B. You can also include images from other countries either by inviting students who come from outside the US or who have family ties with countries outside the US to describe and discuss photos from those places and/or by divvying the images between the class.

Kumbuka. Unawezajumuisha picha kutoka nchi zingine aitha kwa kuwaalika wanafunzi kutoka nchi geni (nje ya Marekani) au wanafunzi wenye mahusiano ya kifamilia kutoka nchi nje ya Marekani kuzungumzia picha kutoka nchi hizo na/au kugawa picha kwa wanafunzi darasani.

Tazama picha hizi kutoka Kenya. Elezea picha. Je, unaona nini? Vyakula hivi vinanunuliwa wapi?

Linganisha picha ya Amerikani na picha za Kenya. Je ni mifanano au tofauti zipi unazoziona?

E. Mbona sisi hula hivi?

Je, ni kwanini sisi hula hivi? Wakati, mahali na tunachokula kila leo hutegemea pakubwa mambo ya kibayolojia kama vile usagaji wa chakula na uvumilivu. Vyakula mbalimbali huwa vya kihistoria na kitamaduni.

Tazama picha kutoka Marekani kwa mara nyingine. Unaonelea vipi tabia za kula za familia hii? Je, ni za kawaida? Ni ushawishi upi wa kitamaduni unahusika hapa? Tazama picha za Kenya kwa mara nyingine. Ni ushawishi upi wa kitamaduni unahusika hapa?

SIKU YA PILI: Chakula katika Sanaa

This next set of activities takes learners into the museum, but these could also be adapted to a virtual art exhibit. The aim is to use the visual depiction of food in the works of art to push learners’ descriptions of food as a multisensory experience. This then builds towards a discussion of our aesthetic relations to art, which is continued on the third day.

Wanafunzi watakamilisha shughuli zifuatazo katika makavazi, lakini pia maonyesho yanaweza fanyika mtandaoni. Lengo kuu ni kutumia maonyesho ya chakula katika sanaa kuwahimiza wanafunzi kutumia hisia mbalimbali. Hii itawapa msingi wa kuangazia uhusiano mzuri kati ya hisia na sanaa, zoezi ambalo litaedelezwa siku ya tatu.

Uhusiano uliopo kati ya chakula na sanaa ina historia ndefu ya utamaduni. Kuanzia kwenye bakuli ya matunda yasiyo na uhai hadi picha hirizi za chakula kwenye Instagram, tunaunda sanaa kutoka kwenye chakula. Hivi leo tukila chakula sio tu kwa kusudi la kushiba au tuwe na afya nzuri, ila pia tuthamini uzuri wake. Tunapokula, hisia zetu zote zinahitajika. Kinachotuvutia kwanza kabisa na pia kutupa hamu ya kula ni tunachokiona.

A. Uzoefu wa Chakula kwenye Sanaa

This activity can be done in pairs, but allowing students to explore the art works individually allows for a greater variety of responses and a richer diversity of sensations.

Zoezi hili linawezakamilishwa kati ya wanafunzi wawili, huku likiruhusu uchunguzi binafsi wa kila mwanafunzi ili kufikia majibu na hisia anuwai.

Tazama picha zote kwenye maonyesho kisha uchague picha moja inayo kupendeza au kuvutia.

Tazama picha hiyo kwamakini na ujifikirie upo ndani ya picha hii. Chakula kiko mbele yako. Tafakari maswali yafuatayo:

  • Je, unaona nini?
  • Je, unanusa nini?

Jifikirie ukionja chakula hiki

  • Je, kinaonja vipi?
  • Je, unapouma, unahisi vipi? Muundo wa chakula uko vipi? Ni baridi au moto?

Andika maelezo kwenye jedwali

Picha yangu ________________________________ (Mada/Msanii)

Je, chakula kinakaa vipi? Je, kina harufu gani? Je, kina ladha gani? Je, muundo wake uko vipi?
chenye rangi maridadi – chakula safi – kipya – cha zamani – bivu – chenye kuota kungu – kilichochacha Sifa chanya: chenye kunukia – cha kuvutia – aromatic – mkuyati; Sifa zozote: chenye vikolezo – chenye jibini; Sifa hasi: kinachonuka – harufu kali Sifa chanya: tamu –  ya kupendeza – zuri – bora – ladha bora – tender – ladha nzuri –  ya kimapinduzi – ya kusisimua – ya dhana; Sifa zozote: iloyokolezwa – isiyo na ladha – tamu – sukari-tamu – laini – chungu – kali; Sifa hasi: chachu – isiyopendeza – ya kuchosha imara – majimaji – nyevu – povu – kavu – mafuta – jibini – mtindi – laini – gumu – telezi – teketeke – nzito – yenye manyoya  nyepesi – kina vumbi – poda
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B. Chakula na Uzuri

This discussion can be done first in small groups, but ultimately it should lead to a whole-class conversation around what sensations are praised and valued in our society. The commonalities will be important to highlight, while moderating the discussion, but individual differences are also important here to show that taste is both personal and culturally shaped.

Mjadiliano  yanaweza kuendeshwa katika  makundi madogo madogo ya wanafunzi ambayo yataangazia,  hisia zinazothaminiwa na jamii.katika majadiliano hayo ni muhimu kuzingatia mifanano iliyopo na pia tofauti za kibinafsi zitakazoonyesha kuwa ladha ya chakula hutegemea mtu binafsi na huathiriwa na utamaduni.

Hata ingawa sanaa huangazia maonyesho ya chakula, umepata kuona namna hisia zote tano zinaweza tumika. Je, ni hisia gani unachukulia vyema zaidi?

Linganisha majibu yako kwenye jedwali na yale ya wanafunzi wenzako. Ni maonyesho na hisia gani zinazojitokeza mara kwa mara kwenye orodha? Hii inamaanisha nini kuhusu uzuri wa chakula na hisia tunazozithamini?

C. Chakula kwenye Sanaa

This final set of reflections asks students to look back at the art work as a constructed composition, which evokes not only physical sensations but also other feelings, moods, and cultural symbols. The questions can be assigned first as homework or can be discussed in class.

Seti hii ya mwisho ya maswali inahimiza wanafunzi kuzingatia sanaa kama muundo wa kujengwa unao sababisha hisia za kimwili na pia hisia zingine, mitazamo na ishara za kitamaduni. Maswali haya yanaweza pewa kwanza kama kazi ya ziada au kujadiliwa darasani.

Chambua muundo wa picha (picha ilivyoundwa)

  • Je, unaangalia wapi kwanza? Ni vipengele vipi vinavyokuvutia? Vipengele vipi vilivyoangaziwa?
  • Je,maonyesho maalum yameangaziwa vipi? Yameongezwa au kupunguzwa ukubwa? Kwa kutumia rangi? Au kwa kupitia mtazamo fulani?
  • Je, rangi zilizotumika zina athari gani?
  • Je, picha hii ni halisi? Ime ongezwa/punguzwa/ni bora?
  • Picha hii inasababisha hisia gani?
  • Picha hii ina onyesha nini kuhusu chakula na/au uhusiano wetu na chakula?

SIKU YA TATU: Chakula kama Sanaa

This final day builds off of the reflections and discussions from the second day, but shifts the attention to a more ubiquitous form of food art – the Instagram art post.

Siku hii ya mwisho inachukua msingi wa majadiliano yaliyo fanyika siku ya pili, lakini inalenga fomu mbalimbali za sanaa zinazopatikana kila mahali – Sanaa ya Instagram.

If your class only has two days for these lessons, the second and third day could be reduced by bringing in works of art from online exhibits and then compare and contrast them with the images in the article discussed below.

Iwapo darasa lako lina siku tatu pekee za kuendesha somo, siku ya kwanza na ya pili zinaweza kutumika kuendesha maonyesho ya mkondoni na kisha kuyalinganisha maonyesho hayo na picha zinazozungumziwa hapa chini.

“Mtu hafanyi mzaha na chakula” – au? Sote tulijifunza msemo huu tukiwa wadogo. Lakini sheria katika enzi ya mtandao ya kijamii zimebadilika kidogo. Katika Instagram, chakula sio tu cha kufanyia mzaha ila pia kinatumiwa kisanii. Picha na video za chakula zina wekwa kwenye Instagram, hashtegi zinaundwa na jamii inazidi kuwa kubwa.

  • Tafakari: Umewahi kuweka picha za chakula kwenye mtandao?
  • Unahushisha dhana ya Foodporn na vitu au jambo gani?

Katika makala ya jarida ya Brigitte, wasanii wawili wanoutumia chakula kama sanaa wameangaziwa. Soma juujuu na uangalie picha: “Wasanii hawa hugeuza chakula kuwa sanaa” 

  • Je, ni vyakula vipi vilivyochorwa?
  • Ni maneno yepi yaliyotumiwa kueleza picha hizo?
  • Dhania: Ni kwanini msanii amechagua vyakula hivi?:

Chambua muundo wa picha hizi:

  • Je, unaangalia wapi kwanza? Ni vipengele vipi vinavyokuvutia? Ni vipengele vipi vimeangaziwa?
  • Je, maonyesho maalum yameangaziwa vipi? Yameongezwa au kupunguzwa ukubwa? Kwa kutumia rangi? Au kwa kupitia mtazamo fulani?
  • Je, rangi zilizotumika zina athari gani?
  • Je, picha hii ni halisi? Ime ongezwa/punguzwa/ni bora?
  • Picha hii inasababisha hisia gani?
  • Picha hii ina onyesha nini kuhusu chakula na/au uhusiano wetu na chakula?

You may ask students to choose only one image or to divide the images between the students in order to save some time and narrow the focus of the descriptions.

Unaweza kuwapa wanafunzi fursa ya kuchagua picha moja au uwape picha katika makundi ili kuokoa muda na kulainisha mwelekeo wa maelezo

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Icon for the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

Multiliteracies at the Museum: A Resource Book for Language Teachers by Richmond Embeywa and Chantelle Warner is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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