10 Maeneo na Mandhari: Usafiri Ndani ya Makavazi

Chantelle Warner and Richmond Embeywa

Red Road in Arizona, Burhan Dogançay (1965) © Estate of Burhan Dogançay

Kiwango: 

Cha wastanii/Cha juu

Maneno makuu: 

maelezo ⧫ vivumishi ⧫ usafiri ⧫ mandhari ⧫ jiografia

Summary:

This multi-day lesson builds on a familiar thematic unit in many language-culture curricula, namely travel, by inviting students to imagine travel artistic renderings of spaces and places and by engaging them with a related genre, the travel guide. On day 1, students are introduced to the genre of travel guide and more specifically to the individual blurbs contained within, which highlight a particular place one might want to visit, in this case focussing on art museums, mural collections, statue gardens, or other places featuring artworks that convey something about the identity of the location, its history, or its inhabitants. They are then asked to analyze and reflect on the linguistic and visual design choices that make up these texts, based on models provided to them. This expanded set of resources then supports them in the final task on day three.

On Day 2 students will go to a local museum or artistic locale, featuring place-based works of art. For example, the sample lesson was originally developed for German students in Tucson and on the second day students visited the University of Arizona Museum of Art. In some semesters, students were able to view an exhibit of relevance to the lesson, such as The Myth and the Mirror. In other semesters, students chose from regular works of the collection, which included depictions of Arizona’s and Germany’s landscapes. In small groups, students select one artwork to focus on, before completing a series of tasks that invite them to first imagine the depicted landscape as a place they might visit and then to describe the place to an imagined reader, emphasizing the feelings it evokes in them. Although the lesson uses Arizona and Tucson as examples, the lesson could easily be modified to work in a different location.

Finally, on Day 3, students draw from the repertoire of meaning making resources they have gathered over the first two days of the lesson to design a travel guide blurb for the place they have visited, which highlights the work of art they chose. Through this final task, students are put in the role of authors and cultural mediators, who have to consider what aspects of local spaces might be interesting and worthwhile.

Muhtasari:

Msingi wa somo hili la siku tatu unapatikana katika kitengo cha mada fahamu ya lugha-tamaduni-mitaala-usafiri. Somo hili linawaalika wanafunzi kujihusisha kimawazo na mada ya kusafiri kisanaa katika nafasi na maeneo mbalimbali, na pia kuwapa zoezi kutumia mfano maalum wa mwongozo wa kusafiri (Reiseführer/ Travel Guide). Siku ya kwanza wanafunzi wanapata kutazama muundo wa mwongozo wa kusafiri, haswa nakala binafsi yanayoangazia mahali pazuri pa kutembea, mfano huu ukiangazia makumbusho ya Sanaa, makusanyo ya ukuta, bustani za sanamu ama maeneo mengine kaitka kazi za Sanaa zinazozingatia jambo lolote la utambulisho wa eneo, historia au wakaaji wake. Baadaye wanafunzi watahitajika kuchambua na kutafakari yaliyomo katika uchaguzi wa lugha na muundo wa kuona yanayotengeneza nakala hizi, kulingana na mifano waliopewa. Seti hii ya rasilimali inawasaidia katika zoezi la mwisho siku ya tatu.

Siku ya pili wanafunzi watazuru makavazi katika eneo maalum au eneo la kisanii linalowakilisha kazi za Sanaa za kimaeneo. Kwa mfano, somo la asili lilikusudiwa wanafunzi kutoka mjini Tucson na siku ya pili wanafunzi walizuru University of Arizona Museum of Art (Makavazi ya Sanaa ya Arizona). Kuna baadhi ya mihula ambapo wanafunzi waliweza kushuhudia maonyesho husika katika kwenye somo, kwa mfano The Myth and the Mirror (Hadithi na Kioo). Katika mihula mingine, wanafunzi huchagua kazi za sanaa za kawaida zinazohusisha mandhari ya Arizona na pia ya Ujerumani.

Katika makundi madogo, wanafunzi kwanza watazingatia kazi ya sanaa maalum, kisha watakamilisha mazoezi ya ziada yatakayowahitaji kukusanya maoni kuhusu maeneo mbalimbali ya kuzuru. Baadaye watahitajika kuwaelezea wasomaji watarajiwa maoni haya pamoja na hisia walizozipata katika zoezi hili.  Ingawa somo hili linatumia miji ya Arizona na Tucson kama mifano, somo hili linaweza kutumiwa kuadili eneo lingine lolote.

Hatimaye, siku ya tatu, wanafunzi watapata fursa ya kutumia rasilimali walizokusanya katika siku mbili za awali za mafunzo, ili wabuni mwongozo wa darasa utakaoangazia maeneo waliyozuru, na kazi za sanaa walizozichagua. Katika kazi hii ya mwisho, wanafunzi wanajukumu la kuwa waandishi na pia wapatanishi wa kitamaduni, watakaojadili ni sehemu zipi zilizo za thamani.

Malengo ya somo:

  • Kuweza kusoma broshua fupi shikamano za kusafiri na pia kuandika bila msaada
  • Kuweza kutambua na kulinganisha tofauti za kijiografia na za hali ya hewa katika nchi ya Kenya na Arizona (au eneo tofauti)
  • Kuweza kuandika muhtasari wa habari husika wa eneo fulani, kwa mfano, mandhari, hali ya hewa, vivutio vya utalii;
  • Kupitia kwa msaada wa maandishi ya utendaji, kuweza kutafakari maeneo ya kawaida ya kusafiri na athari za utamaduni.

SIKU YA KWANZA: Soma kisha uchambue mwongozo wa kusafiri 

Kutafsiri Miongozo ya Kusafiri

This first set of activities is designed to (re-)familiarize learners with the genre of travel guide, by asking them to reflect on the function and typical content of these texts. The questions that follow can be discussed first in small groups and then as a whole class. Among the typical answers that students have for the last question, travel guides, travel web sites, and travel blogs often come up, which provides a segue into the genre focus. The sample texts then offer two models: a video blog travel guide and a travel web site.

Seti ya kwanza ya shughuli mbalimbali imekusudiwa kufahamisha (tena) wanafunzi kuhusu aina ya mwongozo wa kusafiri, kwa kuwahitaji watafakari kusudi na maandishi ya nakala. Maswali yanayofuata yanawezajadiliwa kwanza kwa makundi madogo kisha yajadiliwe na darasa nzima. Baadhi ya mifano tarajiwa ya majibu waliyonayo wanafunzi kwa swali la mwisho huwa, miongozo na blogi za kusafiri hujitokeza na hutoa mpito wa kutazamia aina fulani. Maandishi ya sampuli zilizoandikwa zinatoa mifano miwili: blogi ya video ya mwongozo wa kusafiri na tovuti ya kusafiri.

Mada yetu ya kisasa ni “Kusafiri” Tafakari kwa kifupi…

  • Je, watu huzuru maeneo gani wanaposafiri? Watu huzuru mitaa gani anapowasili katika nchi mpya au mji mpya?
  • Je, ni habari gani muhimu sana mtu anapaswa kujua anapopanga safari?
  • Je, habari hii inapatikana wapi?

Pata Kuhisi Mwongozo wa Kusafiri

Tutatazama video inayowakilisha mji wa Magadi. Ujumbe wa video (#TembeaKenya) ni kukuza utalii wa ndani (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FKrCCT9UGc8).

Chemsha bongo: Unatarajia kuona nini katika video ya mwongozo wa kusafiri kuhusu Los Angeles? Je, ni jambo gani linalojitokeza kuhusu mji huu?

Sasa tazama video. Unapotazama video, jaza jedwali na habari sahihi.

Students will likely complete the table individually, while viewing the film.They can then be given time to compare answers with a partner first or the class can move to a whole class discussion. By comparing what they noticed, the students can collaboratively piece together what they heard and in so doing begin to create a list of words that might serve them in the creation of their own travel guide blurbs. This should thus be treated less as a comprehension task and more as an active viewing activity.

Wanafunzi wajaze jedwali kibinafsi wanapotazama filamu. Baadaye wanawezapewa muda kulinganisha majibu yao na yale ya wenzio ama kama darasa nzima. Kwa kulinganisha majibu yao, wanafunzi wanawezashirikiana kwa kukusanya maoni na kuanzisha orodha ya maneno yanayowezakusaidia katika uundaji wa miongozo yao ya kusafiri. Kwa hivyo hii haifai kuzingatiwa kama kazi ya ufahamu ila kama tendo la utazamaji.

Utazamaji wa kwanza Utazamaji wa pili
Je, unaona nini? Ni maeneo yapi, watu gani, shughuli gani (na kadhalika.) unaziona kwenye picha? Je, ni meneno gani yanayoweza kutumika kuelezea maeneo, watu na shughuli hizi? Tengeneza orodha
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Je, umewai kufika kwenye eneo kama hili?

Uchambuzi wa Miongozo ya Kusafiri

Sasa tutasoma mwongozo mpya mtandaoni unaoangazia maeneo maarufu nchini Kenya.

If this kind of visual analysis activity is new to your students, it can be helpful to analyze this site as part of a guided whole-class activity. If your students are more familiar with this and/or you have a larger class, students can discuss these questions first in groups. As before, the main goal is not comprehension; instead students are being guided to analyze this particular example, such that they can further their conceptualization of the genre.

Ikiwa uchambuzi huu wa filamu ni geni kwa wanafunzi wako, itakuwa vyema iwapo uchambuzi huu utaongozwa darasani. Iwapo wanafunzi wako wanapendelea mkondo huu na pia/au kama darasa lako ni kubwa, basi wanawezajadiliana katika makundi. Kama hapo awali, lengo kuu sio ufahamu, ila wanafunzi kuongozwa kuchambua mfano huu, ili waweze kuendeleza mawazo yao kuhusu utanzu huu.

Kiungo: https://www.yoair.com/sw/blog/travel-guide-explore-the-culturally-diverse-world-of-kenya/

Angalia tovuti tofauti kisha uyajibu maswali yafuatayo.

  • Je, tovuti hii ina mpangilio upi?
  • Je, ni rangi zipi zinazojitokeza? Je, kuna ishara zingine au vipengele vya kuona?
  • Je, unatazama wapi kwanza? Ni vipengele vipi vinavyokuvutia?
  • Je, picha hii ina jukumu lipi? Unaona nini kwenye picha? Ni nini imewakilishwa?
  • Je, lugha ina kazi gani? Muundo wa sentensi unakaa vipi? Sentensi ni fupi au ndefu? Kuna vivumishi? Ni watu gani, vitu vipi au maeneo gani yametajwa? Yameelezewa vipi? Ni habari gani imetajwa? Jaza haya kwenye jedwali.
Kitu/Mtu/Eneo Vivumishi Habari
 

 

 

 

Je,ni yepi unayotaka kuyajua bado? Ni Habari gani inakosekana?

The final activity for the first day could be done as a homework assignment OR, if time allows, in class with partners. The purpose of this activity is to zoom in on one element found in travel guides, while also engaging students in a descriptive activity that allows them to use some of the language they have encountered during this unit.

Zoezi la mwisho la siku ya kwanza linawezakufanywa kama kazi ya ziada AU, muda ukiruhusu, linawezakufanywa darasani kwa makundi. Lengo la shughuli hii ni kuzingatia kipengele kimoja kinachopatikana katika miongozo ya kusafiri, na vilevile kuwahusisha wanafunzi katika zoezi fafanuzi  linalowawezesha kutumia lugha waliyojifunza katika kitengo hiki cha somo.

Chagua picha moja kutoka kwenye tovuti au picha nyingine kutoka eneo moja ilyowakilishwa kwenye mwongozo wa kusafiri. Fikiria unafanya kazi katika tovuti ya vidokezo vya kusafiri vya Marekani na ni jukumu lako kuandika maelezo mafupi ya picha. Andika maelezo mafupi ya sententensi 2-3. Ungependelea msomaji apate ujumbe upi kuhusu eneo hili? Lengo hili litafanikishwa vipi?

After students complete their captions, these can be shared with the class and other students can respond to the texts of their classmates.

Baada ya wanafunzi kumaliza maelezo yao,wanaweza kujadiliana wenyewe kwa wenyewe darasani ili wapate majib kutoka kwa wenzao

Je, maelezo mafupi yalikuwa na faida yoyote? Yalikushawishi? Ungependelea kuona na kujifunza zaidi kuhusu eneo hili?

SIKU YA PILI: Ndani ya Makavazi

Kuelewa Jiografia za Mitaa

The opening activities here were designed as a review from the first day, but could be adapted as part of that same lesson or as an activity to take place before the first day of this module. In addition to a vocabulary review, the brainstorm pushes students to think about what geographical elements are associated with different places. Although this is a descriptive activity, it also asks them to reflect on how people who do not live there might conceptualize the place that they live and how they in turn conceptualize Kenya.

Mazoezi haya yalikusudiwa kuwa marudio ya siku ya kwanza, lakini yanawezazingatiwa pamoja na darasa ya leo au pia kama zoezi la kufanyika kabla siku ya kwanza katika moduli hii. Pamoja na marudio ya msamiati, chemsha bongo hii inalenga kuwahimiza wanafunzi kutafakari vipengele vya jiografia vilinyohusishwa na maeneo tofauti. Ijapokuwa zoezi hili fafanuzi, inatarajia wanafunzi kutafakari ni vipi wageni wanavyoweza kulifikiria eneo hili na pia vilevile watakavyounda mawazo yao kuhusu Kenya kama nchi.

Wazo-Ushirikiano-Majadiliano: Nini hutofautisha eneo? Tafakari na ujaze jedwali.

Je, ni mandhari gani au vipengele vipi vya jiografia vilivyo vya kawaida Kenya?

 

Je, ni vivumishi gani vinavyoweza kutumika kuelezea eneo hili?

Je, ni mandhari gani au vipengele vipi vya jiografia vilivyo vya kawaida Arizona?

 

Je, ni vivumishi gani vinanyoweza kutumika kuelezea eneo hili?

Maoni ya wakaazi… Maoni ya watu wengine… Maoni ya wakaazi… Maoni ya watu wengine…
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Linganisha majibu yako na yale ya wanafunzi wenzako.

Uchambuzi wa Dhana za Jiografia Mitaani

Washiriki wamegawanywa katika vikundi viwili. Kikundi A kuzingatia Kenya na Kikundi B kuzingatia Arizona

Tazama tovuti husika. Unaona mandhari na vipengele gani vya jiografia katika nakala? Unaona vivumishi gani vinanyopatikana katika nakala? Tengeneza orodha. Linganisha maneno kutoka kwenye tovuti na orodha yako ya ushirikiano. Kuna ulinganifu? Tofauti? Toleo gani ni nzuri/hasi/shawishi/inayochosha/ na kadhalika, kwa watu wengi?

Kundi A: Kenya (Habari za Kusafiri) Kundi B: Arizona (Habari za Kusafiri)
https://www.actualidadviajes.com/sw/Kenya-na-urithi-wake-wa-ulimwengu/ https://www.actualidadviajes.com/sw/jangwa-la-sonora/
 

 

 

 

 

 

Tovuti imekusudiwa nani? Nani anafaidika kutoka kwenye tovuti na anafaidika vipi?

Hisimseto za Picha, Mandhari Katika Kazi za Sanaa

The next activities were designed for the gallery, but these could be adapted to a virtual art exhibit. Students first select a work that speaks to them and imagine themselves within the image. The intention is that students move beyond the purely concrete, distanced style of description often seen in textbooks and towards more detailed, multisensory descriptions (compare “I am…”), as they consider the artworks as aesthetic objects. Originally this was done in small groups to expedite the image response to the design of the travel guide entry; however, this can be done individually, by adding an additional step where groups are formed and each group must select from the different images selected by the members.

Mazoezi yafuatayo yamekusudiwa maonyesho, lakini yanaweza kubadilishwa kuzingatia maonyesho ya sanaa mtandaoni. Kwanza, wanafunzi watachagua picha inayowavutia halafu watajifikiria katika picha hii. Lengo ni kuwaelekeza wanafunzi zaidi ya maelezo dhabiti yanayopatikana katika vitabu vya kiada kwa kujumuisha malezo kina (angalia “mimi ni…”) wanapozingazia kazi za sanaa kuwa vitu vya kupendeza. Hapo awali, shughuli hii ilijadiliwa katika makundi madogo ili kuharakisha majibu ya picha kwa muundo wa mwongozo wa kusafiri. Lakini, hii inaweza kukamilishwa kama zoezi binafsi kwa kuongeza hatua ya ziada ambapo makundi yanaundwa na kila kikundi kinapata kuchagua kutoka kwenye picha tofauti zilizochaguliwa na washiriki.

Tazama picha katika maonyesho na uchague picha iliyokupendeza zaidi. Fikiria umesimama katika mandhari/mji ulio kwenye picha. Tafakari maswali haya:

  • Je, unanusa nini?
  • Je, unaskia nini?
  • Je, unahisi nini? Kuna baridi/joto kiasi gani?
  • Je, unaona nini? Ni kitu gani kiko nyuma yako, karibu na wewe, kushoto, kulia?
  • Je, ni watu gani wengine waliopo? Wanafanana vipi? Wanafanya nini?

Andika maelezo katika jedwali.

Picha yangu ________________________________ (Kichwa/Msanii)

Ninachokiona Ninachokiskia Ninachokinusa
 

 

 

 

 

Tafuta mshirika mwengine kutoka kikundi kingine na uzungumzie unachohisi, ona, nusa, na kadhalika, kwenye picha.

Pamoja na kikundi chako andika elezo fupi kuhusu picha (bila kichwa au msanii). Jaribu kupitisha hisia.

Badilisha maelezo na kikundi kingine. Jaribu kupata picha inayofaa. Picha hii inakushawishi vipi? Je, maelezo yako sawa?

SIKU YA 3: Andishi lako la mwongozo wa kusafiri

The final day is devoted to getting students ready to create their own travel guide entries. Each of the activities builds towards the kinds of design choices students will need to make for this final redesign task. This includes the initial warm-up activity, which asks them to reflect on the museum, while also gathering resources to describe it in their texts. Students can even be prompted to take pictures of videos on the previous day OR they can return to do this as needed. Do make sure that you clarify the rules the museum has around photography and video-taping beforehand. The art museum can also easily be replaced by other locations, as needed. An advantage of asking students to write about a place they have just experienced is that they have the opportunity to engage in a more embodied, less abstract form of description – as is often included in more personal travel guides.

Siku ya mwisho imetengwa kuwatayarisha wanafunzi kuandika miongozo ya kusafiri. Kila  zoezi linawania kuwaandaa wanafunzi katika uchaguzi za kubuni watakazohitaji kwa shughuli kuu ya mwisho ya kubuni. Hii ni Pamoja na shughuli ya mwisho ya chemsha bongo, inayowahitaji kutafakari juu ya makavazi, na vilevile wapate kukusanya rasilimali zitakazowasaidia katika nakala yao. Wanafunzi wanawezakuongozwa pia kuchukua picha za video za siku iliyopita AU waneza fanya shughuli hizi inavyohitajika. Haikikisha umewaelezea wanafunzi mapema kuhusu sheria zinazotumika katika  makavazi kuhusu upigaji picha na utengenezaji wa video.  sanaa ya makavazi haya  yanawezabadilishwa na mahali pengine inavyohitajika. Faida ya kuwauliza wanafunzi kuandika kuhusu eneo  ambalo washatembea ni ili wapate fursa ya kujihusisha na kwa maelezo ya maana yasiyo tu dhahania – jambo ambalo huwa si haba katika  miongozo mingi ya kusafiri.

Wazo Lako la Ziara ya Sanaa

Je, safari yako katika makavazi ilikuwaje?  sanaa ya makavazi haya yako vipi? Yana harufu gani? Mtu  husikia nini katika jumba hili?

Kubuni Nakala ya Mwongozo wa Kusafiri

Katika somo hili tumeona na kuchambua mifano kutoka miongozo ya kusafiri yaliyopo mtandaoni – video na tovuti.

Tafakari, unafanya kazi katika kampuni ya mwongoza wa kusafiri mtandaoni na jukumu lako ni kubuni nakala kuhusu makumbusho ya Sanaa (urefu: ~ maneno 300).  nakala yako ya mwongozo wa kusafiri unafaa kujumuisha picha 2-4.  mojawapo ya picha lazima iwe mchoro kutoka kwenye  makavazi (uliyoelezea darasani tayari). Jumuisha picha pamoja na maandishi halafu  ubuni mpangilio

Tafakari maswali haya:

  • Je, unatumia picha zipi na ni kwa sababu gani? Picha zini zina jukumu gani?
  • Je, picha hizi zina maelezo mafupi? Picha hizi zinahusiana vipi na lugha?
  • Je, ni vipengele vingine gani vya kubuni vimetumiwa katika andishi lako?

Katika maneno yako, jibu maswali yafuatayo:

  • Je, unadhani ni kitu gani cha kuvutia kinachoweza kuwafanya watalii kutoka Kenya watembelee mji wa Tucson?
  • Je, ni habari gani muhimu watakayohitaji kujua? Ni kitu gani wanachopaswa kujua kuhusu makavazi haya?
  • Je, ni Kwanini mchoro huu ni maalum? Je, watalii kutoka Kenya wangependelea kuona nini haswa? Kwa mfano, Habari ya hali ya hewa? Hisia? Na kadhalika. Ni vipengele vipi vya Arizona vimewakilishwa?

If time allows, students can share their entries with the class on or after the due date. The class as a whole can be prompted to compare and contrast the various versions, drawing from the kinds of questions already asked in these lessons, and even to vote on the best entry in the role of an editorial board.

Iwapo kuna muda wanafunzi wanawezalinganisha maandishi yao na darasani   makataa ya mwisho au pia baadaye. Darasa linawezaongozwa kulinganisha na kutofautisha toleo mbalimbali, wanafunzi wakizingatia maswali yaliyoulizwa katika masomo hayo , na pia kuchagua  nakala bora zaidi kama bodi la wahariri.

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Multiliteracies at the Museum: A Resource Book for Language Teachers by Chantelle Warner and Richmond Embeywa is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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